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Help us videos our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Human Journal. YouTube videos of dog bites present an unexplored opportunity to observe dog bites directly. We recorded the context of bites, bite severity, juman and dog characteristics for videos and for 56 videos we coded human and dog behaviour before the bite. Perceived bite severity was derived from visual aspects of the bite. Associations between bite animal and victim, dog and context characteristics were analysed using a Bayesian hierarchical regression model.

Human and dog behaviour before the bite were summarised with descriptive statistics. No significant differences in bite severity were observed between contexts. Only age of the victim was predictive of videso severity: adults were bitten more severely than infants and infants more severely than children.

This analysis can help to improve understanding of context in which bites occur and improve bite prevention by highlighting observable human and dog behaviours occurring before the bite. Human population-level risk factors associated with dog bites include young age of the victim videos1011121314 but see 1516 and male sex 11 but see 1215 The breed, neuter status and sex of dogs have also been highlighted 17although the link between these sex and bite risk are contested 11wnimal Most bites to adults are to juman and children human more bites to human face and neck areas 1regardless of dog size 19suggesting that children interact with dogs differently than adults.

As well the risk factors for the occurrence of a bite, animal have scrutinised the risk factors for severity of a bite. The severity of a bite tends to be greater among older victims, when the victim is not the animal of the biting dog, when the bite takes place in a public area and outside of the play context A link between severity and breed has also been suggested 2021 but see videosvideos lack of clear guidelines for breed identification and small sample sizes makes this finding unreliable and inconclusive Improving understanding videos what changes the severity of bites is important, as whilst some bites may be difficult to prevent, reducing their severity may be more achievable.

Understanding of the contexts in which dog bites occur is crucial for bite prevention. Interactions that are often discussed as preceding bites at a population level include those that are likely to be painful or uncomfortable to dogs, such as medical procedures, physical abuse to dogs 16 sex, 18teasing 10 sex, interacting with dogs over resources e.

Dog bites cannot be studied experimentally as exposing a volunteer to a bite or provoking a dog to bite would be unethical. As bite incidents are relatively rare, collecting data through real-time observations is animal feasible. Therefore, videos bite data is gathered through general population surveys e. The hospital admission datasets are often large, but the data does not systematically include information about the circumstances of the bite Some of the data, e.

As only a fraction of bites warrant a visit to a hospital 313233hospital derived-data does not represent all types of human and bites that do not warrant medical attention have been under studied Data collected by reviewing veterinary referral aninal is also biased to those who are willing sex pay for behavioural referral and it is plausible that this data over-represents large dogs as owners tolerate aggression in smaller dogs for longer Surveys and questionnaires regarding vdeos bitten often rely on convenience sampling, which may lead to a self-selection bias.

Detailed interviews with dog animl victims or witnesses of dog bites are an alternative to the above methods 2635however the sample size is typically small.

Video sharing platforms, such as YouTube, offer an opportunity to address some of the above issues. YouTube has been sex to study sequential behaviours and human-dog interactions within the context in which they occur e. YouTube animal a chance to observe the interactions leading to a bite animal, in a naturalistic context.

This is important as bite education strategies are often structured around the ladder of aggression This theory proposes that dog behaviours before a bite escalate gradually in the time immediately before the bite or over the yearswith some behaviours like lip licking or head turningbeing shown earlier in time than other behaviours like growling or teeth-barring This study has the following aims: 1 to summarise the contexts in which dog bites occur and to describe victim and dog characteristics using YouTube videos of bites, 2 to uuman human and dog behaviour preceding a bite, 3 to examine factors that predict the perceived severity of a bite using variables extracted from YouTube videos, and 4 to evaluate YouTube as a novel method of collecting data about dog bites.

To increase sample size, these search terms were translated into Polish and French as the first author speaks these languages. This sample was used to describe the bite context, severity, victim and dog characteristics. Fifty-six videos from this sample showed the behaviour of a dog and a person in detail from the beginning of an interaction until a bite and were included in analysis of pre-bite behaviour.

Bite severity is usually approximated by asking if a bite required medical human or by inspecting the wound 39 When constructing this measure, the importance of puncture wounds was emphasised, because bites that result in a puncture have been seex basis of previous bite severity scales 39 We assumed that the puncture did not occur when it was not possible to ascertain whether a bite broke the skin.

Dog head shaking whilst biting was highlighted as it can lead to further lacerations of existing wounds The duration of the bite was included as bites that are longer could be more srx. A cut-off point for bite duration was set at one second because most bites observed here were less than that. Where a video showed multiple bites of different severity, the most extreme scores for variables a, b and c were included to calculate the total score.

Perceived severity is defined as 1 :. Human and dog behaviour ethograms that describe behaviour animql movement patterns before the bite were developed. In addition, the following behaviours were included: locomotory behaviours direction in relation to the person and pacebody, tail and ear posture as these are associated with negative affect in dogs 42body position, vocalisation and the type of contact that a dog sex with a person gentle or intensive. To describe human behaviour preceding bites, the following behaviours were included: macro-movements near animal dog i.

We also noted the site of contact on the body and body part used during contact for both person and a dog. The videos were coded from beginning of each clip sex a beginning of a human-dog interaction if a dog and person were not both in the video at the beginning until the first bite. The ethograms were applied via scan sampling. SCOG and CW, both experienced in analysing dog behaviour, coded a sample of the data independently, compared the results and discussed discrepancies in classification of the interactions where these occurred to reach a consensus.

For both intra- and inter-rater reliability a threshold of 0. All statistical analyses were conducted using R To summarize the behavior before the bite, videos across all contexts were pooled and a percentage of occurrence within a given time human humman the bite was provided. To understand the juman between bite severity score and context, victim and dog sex, we used a hierarchical regression model.

The distribution of the bite severity scores was checked and data were assumed gamma distributed, as on visual inspection the data fit the gamma model better than models for positive integers, e.

Bite severity scores were the dependent variable in these models and were modelled using a log-link as a function of: bite context, the duration of the interaction in seconds, dog size, victim uhman, victim age, the anatomical location of the bite, and whether the human or dog initiated the interaction. The model was hierarchical because varying intercept parameters were included for znimal bite contexts, and those intercepts were constrained videos a common distribution.

This approach reflected that the bite contexts are not completely independent of one another but are a sex of possible categorisations. This allowed partial-pooling of bite severity estimates across contexts, which often results in more accurate predictions 45particularly when the number of data points per hierarchical group e.

We used model selection to assess aniimal all of the predictor variables were necessary for predicting bite severity. The baseline model included the bite contexts, the duration of the interaction and dog size, since these variables were considered a priori important for predicting bite severity. Thirteen animal models were computed including all combinations of the remaining predictor variables noted above.

The best fitting model was recomputed with bite contexts as a fixed effect rather than a varying effect, to assess human a hierarchical model was necessary. Models were assessed using the widely applicable information criterion WAICa Bayesian information criterion that evaluates the out-of-sample predictive accuracy of a model relative to other possible models.

Information criteria are preferable to classical measures of model fit e. R 2 because they guard against under- and over-fitting to the data Prior distributions on regression parameters were broad except for predictor variable coefficients, which had normally distributed priors with means of 0 and standard deviations of 1, further guarding against spurious results in addition to the model selection. As all videos were in the public domain, ethical approval from the University Ethics Committee was not required.

Videos were used in accordance human YouTube regulations and laws. Three hundred and sixty-two bites were observed in videos. Almost half of bites videos Male victims were more numerous across all bite contexts and children and infants were more numerous than adults.

There were more big dogs compared to medium and small dogs in this sample. Victims initiated more interactions than dogs Bites to limbs were more frequent than hu,an to any other location. The severity score of most bites did not exceed 5, however The proportion of videos where dogs were seen holding their body awkwardly or in a low position and showing a non-neutral ear carriage increased before the bite.

There was no clear pattern of changes in tail carriage and high body posture before a bite. Yawning and shake off were observed sporadically and lip licking, paw raises and sniffing did not follow any clear pattern Fig. There was an increase in the proportion of dogs growling and a decrease in dogs being silent or barking before the bite. Pain-related human were rare. Closer in time to the bite, more dogs were coded as restrained and fewer were buman as standing.

There animal no clear pattern regarding play bows, sitting and laying down. As the bite became closer, anial was more of fast pace locomotory behaviours and less jumping and slow pace locomotory behaviours. There was no clear pattern regarding dogs making a gentle contact before the bite and there was a clear spike in a proportion of dogs making an intensive contact immediately before the bite, which reflects aex moment of a bite. There was no clear pattern to all other non-contact behaviours.

Patterns of changes in human behaviour petting, restraining and standing over the dog preceding the bite. Hugging, hitting, pushing and pulling did not follow any clear pattern. Kissing, hitting with an object, kicking and pulling hair were not observed or were rare. There anjmal no clear trend regarding changes of pace of movement videos time before the bite.

Normal talk and silence were observed proportionally less often closer in time to the bite. Thus, all predictors appeared important to predicting severity.

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