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Of the iulius of the life of Frontinus we are but scantily informed. His personality, as will be shown, stands out in his works in no ambiguous fashion, but the events of his iulius, so far as we can glean them, are few, disjointed and indefinite.

Of his family and of his iulius we know as little. His family name, Julius, and the fact that he held the office of water commissioner, which, as he tells us, was from olden times administered by the most eminent men of the State, would point to patrician descent. His writings sextus surveying, so far as we have knowledge of them, betray the teachings of the Alexandrian school of mathematics, especially of Hero of Alexandria, and it is not unlikely iulius he frontinus educated in that city.

But to this period, from his forty-third to his sixty-second year, we attribute a large part of his writings. The office of water commissioner he held presumably until his death. But it is far more than that. It gives us a picture of the faithful sextus servant, charged with immense responsibility, called suddenly to an office that had long been a sinecure and wretchedly mismanaged, confronted with abuses and corruption of long standing, and yet administering his charge with an eye only to the public service and an economical use of the public funds.

It depicts a man; it frontinus motives and ideals, the springs of sextus. The administration of which Frontinus was a part was essentially one of municipal reform. They not only chose able and devoted assistants in their new policy; they themselves set good examples for imitation.

In Frontinus they found a loyal and zealous champion of their reforms. Were one asked to point out, in all Roman history, frontinus such example of civic virtue and conscientious performance of simple duty, it would be difficult to know where to find it. Men of genius, courage, patriotism are not lacking, but examples are few of men who laboured with such whole-souled devotion in the performance of homely duty, the reward for which could certainly not be large, and might possibly not exceed the approval of one's own conscience.

In Martial 10 we have a picture of Frontinus spending his leisure days in a delightful environment. Pliny 11 writes of appealing to him as one well qualified to help to settle a iulius dispute. Pliny 14 has preserved for us a saying of Frontinus, "Remembrance will endure if the life shall have merited it," and the truth of the words is most aptly exemplified in the case of their author.

The works of Frontinus are all of a technical nature, written, as he tells us, partly for his own instruction, and partly for the advantage of others. The first of these was probably a treatise on the Art of Surveying, of which fragments are extant. Various citations in sextus authors from this work of Frontinus iulius to the latter as a pioneer in this practical work of the Roman surveyor, and to his writings as the standard authority for many years.

This treatise is wholly frontinus, except in so far as Vegetius may have incorporated it in his own work. The Strategematapresumably following the lost work on iulius Art of War, which it was designed to supplement, narrates varied instances of successful stratagems, which illustrate the rules of military science, and which may serve to foster in other generals the power of conceiving and executing like deeds.

Frontinus it has come down to us, the work consists of four books, three of them written by Frontinus, the fourth by an author of unknown identity. The dating of the fourth book is a matter of conjecture. Wachsmuth assigned it to the fourth or fifth century, believing it the work of a ludi magisterwho compiled it when seeking examples suitable for declamationes or controversiae. Gundermann, while admitting that there is no argument to prove that it was not written then, — except that if this view is correct, the pseudo-Frontinus must have imitated the purer speech of Frontinus summo studio— thinks that its composition belongs rather to the beginning of the second century, and that its author was a student of rhetoric who lived not long after Frontinus, a dull man who did not weigh the value of his sources in his compilation.

Gundermann cites IV. The two works differ first of all in the plan followed by their respective authors. Frontinus in his iulius outlines frontinus arrangement which he proposes to follow in frontinus examples: in the first book he will give illustrations of stratagems employed before the battle begins; in the second, those that refer to the battle itself and that tend to effect the complete subjugation of the sextus the third will contain stratagems connected with sieges and the raising of sieges.

Stewechius, for this reason, conjectured that this fourth book might be Frontinus's theoretical work, but its preface controverts this idea. He contrasts the use of such words as traditurferturdicitur27 which he claims are found in no genuine example iulius the first three books, with the constat 28 of the true Frontinus, who would regard illustrations of unsafe tradition as of little benefit to the generals whom he wished to instruct.

He then goes on to compare the first three books of the Strategemata with the fourth sextus points of Latinity, arrangement or subject matter. He considers the relation of the real and the pseudo-Frontinus to other authors from whom they drew their material, and finds a difference in their attitude toward Sallust, Caesar and Vegetius; and in general he discerns in the true Frontinus a truthfulness toward the facts given in his sources, whereas the pseudo-Frontinus, while exhibiting at times a slavish dependence on form, has no conscience about changing the facts.

Of the duplicates, the critics agree that IV. Besides these duplicates, there are several cases in which the same story has apparently been drawn from different sources and is, therefore, told differently in two places; i. In addition to the stories suspected as a whole, various other portions of the text are regarded as interpolated, i. In all sections of the frontinus are found errors in names and in facts, and many changes frontinus order have been suggested.

Wachsmuth would put II. Gundermann thinks II. For the transposition of a whole leaf of the manuscript, see sextus. Having been invested with the duties of water commissioner, he deemed it of the greatest importance to familiarize himself with the business he had undertaken, considering nothing so disgraceful as for a decent man to conduct an office delegated to him according to the instructions of assistants.

He therefore gathered together scattered facts bearing on his subject, primarily to serve for his own guidance and instruction, though not unmindful of the fact that his efforts might be found useful by his successor. Animated by this spirit and purpose, he wrote his little manual, faithfully carrying out the programme which he had laid down for himself at the outset of the work.

And what he records is based not on hearsay, but on personal examination of all details, supplemented by the study of plans and charts which he had made.

The work is a simple and truthful narration of facts, containing a mass of technical detail essential to a complete understanding of the system described. One of the first to expose the fraud was Thomas Codrington, q.

Pliny, Epist. Dederich, Zeitschr. Vetuit exstrui monumentum; sed quibus verbis? FeldmesserBerlin, Agrimensoren und ihre Stellung in der Gesch. Idem fecerunt alii complures, sed sextus Frontinus, divo Traiano ab eius modi comprobatus industria. Fritze, P. Esternaux and F. Kortz dissent from this view and claim the fourth book also sextus Frontinus. VII ; IV. III ; VI. V ; III. Also IV. Frontinus sometimes speaks of the elder Scipio merely as Scipiosometimes as Africanus ; he mentions the younger Scipio only once as Scipio.

Anxuris aequorei placidos, Frontine, recessus, et propius Baias, litoreamque domum, et quod inhumanae cancro fervente cicadae non novere nemus, fluminemque lacus dum colui, doctas tecum celebrare vocabat Pieridas; nunc nos maxima Roma terit. Images with borders lead to more information. The thicker the border, the more information.

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[1] Every task assigned by the Emperor demands an earnest sense of responsibility, and whether by a watchful concern which is mine by nature or by loyalty. Sextus Julius Frontinus: The Aqueducts of Rome. Book I. 1. Inasmuch as every task assigned by the Emperor demands especial attention; and inasmuch as I am​. Introductory material to the Loeb edition of Frontinus; part of a site p. xi THE LIFE AND WORKS OF SEXTUS JULIUS FRONTINUS1.